Dangers of Using Non-Organic Skin Products
Here's a story from Business Week on how skin lotions are now found to cause cancer.
Executive Health August 14, 2008, 09:00 EST
Moisturizers Spur Skin Cancer in Mouse Study
Experiments find skin creams boosted rate of cancer growth, number of tumors; experts say human impact unknown.
By Steven Reinberg
THURSDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Common moisturizing creams helped skin cancers spread and tumors grow in mice exposed to UV radiation, researchers at Rutgers University reported Thursday.
"These creams we tested have tumorigenic [tumor-causing capability] activities," said lead researcher Allan H. Conney, from the university's Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research.
But, he added, "I need to emphasize that what we have done is only in mice. We don't know what the implications are for humans. But it does raise a red flag that this is something that should be considered."
The report is published in the Aug. 14 issue of the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.
For the study, Conney's team exposed hairless mice to an extended period of UV radiation, which induced non-melanoma skin cancer. After stopping UV treatment, they applied four different common brands of skin moisturizers to the animals' skin five days a week for 17 weeks.
The researchers found that mice treated with skin moisturizers showed an increased rate of tumor formation. In addition, there were more tumors on the animals treated with moisturizers than on the mice that were only given UV radiation.
The moisturizers used were Dermabase, made by Patrick Laboratories in Minneapolis; Dermovan, made by Galderma Laboratory Inc. of Fort Worth, Texas; Eucerin Original Moisturizing Cream, made by Beiersdorf of Hamburg Germany; and Vanicream, made by Pharmaceutical Specialties Inc., in Rochester, Minn.
Conney's group identified several ingredients in the moisturizers that appear to enhance tumor growth.
"We took out a couple of ingredients and made a cream that turned out to be non-tumorigenic," Conney said. The resulting lotion did not increase cancer growth in mice exposed to UV radiation, the researchers found.
"We really don't know what ingredients in these creams are doing that," Conney said. "There is a need to have the various companies test their creams to see whether or not there is a problem."
Conney thinks that companies can modify their products to remove this effect. "I am sure there are creams on the market that do not have tumorigenic activities and some of them may have anti-tumorigenic activity," he said.
Dr. Robin Ashinoff, a clinical associate professor of dermatology at New York University School of Medicine in New York City, thinks the findings are interesting but she said they may not apply to humans.
Drugs that have been implicated in growth in animals in the past do not always have similar effects in humans, Ashinoff said.
"Certainly, the issue here is to protect yourself from that degree of continuous UVB-induced priming for skin cancer by practicing good sun protection and sunscreen use in the first place," she added.
"These moisturizing creams might act as an irritant or a promoter of skin cancer in mice skin, but extensive study is needed before we advise people that their commonly used moisturizers can cause skin cancer," Ashinoff said.
For more information on skin cancer, visit the American Cancer Society.
SOURCES: Allan H. Conney, Ph.D., Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; Robin Ashinoff, M.D., clinical associate professor, dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York City; Aug. 14, 2008, Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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The Danger of Parabens
Five Types of Parabens Detected Intact in Human Breast Tumors
By Suzanne M. Snedeker, Ph.D.
Parabens have been used as preservatives since the 1920s. Chemically, parabens have a simple structure. They consist of a 6-member carbon ring with a hydroxyl group on one side (-OH) of the ring and a side chain called an alkyl ester on the opposite side of the ring. The side chains can be of varying lengths. Parabens are used to prevent the growth of bacteria in a wide range of consumer products, including a variety of foods and pharmaceutical drugs. The most prevalent use has been as a preservative in cosmetics, including facial and body cosmetics, skin care products, shampoos and conditioners, sunscreens, underarm products (antiperspirants and deodorants), colognes and perfumes, and soaps, including liquid hand soap. One of the most widely quoted sources of information on use, exposure and safety of the four most commonly used parabens was published in 1984 in a report authored by Elder (1). This report estimated that parabens were used in over 13,200 different cosmetic products.
Parabens have been widely accepted and used because of past reports of their effectiveness as preservatives, low cost, and rapid excretion from the body (both human and animal testing). However, recently some scientists have raised concerns that further assessment of parabens may be needed. This is based on recent evidence from over a dozen scientific studies indicating that several types of parabens can bind to the estrogen receptor and can cause estrogen-like responses when tested in laboratory animals or in a variety of tissue culture assays (see http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/Bibliography.cfm under Endocrine Disruption Bibliographies). In whole-animal studies, the estrogenic effects of parabens were not seen when fed to the animals, but only when applied to or injected under the skin. But, these were short-term, high-dose studies. Little to no information exists on whether use of products with low levels of parabens over many years results in accumulation of parabens in body tissues and whether there are or are not any health effects associated with use of paraben-containing consumer products.
The study by P. Darbre and colleagues (2) was conducted to assess whether any of the six parabens commonly used in consumer products in Europe could be detected in human breast tumors. The names of the parabens studied were: methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben, butylparaben and benzylparaben. The prefix (e.g. "methyl") indicates the name of the side-chain structure of each paraben. In this study, 20 samples of human breast tissue were obtained from patients undergoing surgery at the Edinburgh Breast Unit in Scotland, UK. The samples were frozen, and then tumors were minced and homogenized to help break up the tissue. Solvents were used to extract the parabens from the tumor sample, followed by the use of thin-layer chromotography to isolate any of the parabens present in the samples. Another method called high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to identify the type and the concentration of each paraben. For each batch of samples, a blank was included that had no tumor tissue, which was run through the same extraction and detection procedure. The authors were surprised that the blank was not zero, but had some parabens. The authors thought parabens in the hand soap used by technicians or in the detergent used to clean the glassware may have contaminated the laboratory equipment. Blank values were subtracted from sample paraben values to correct for this problem. At least one type of paraben was detected in 19 out of 20 tumors. Methylparaben was the most commonly observed paraben (18/20) and was detected at the highest average level.
This study is the first report of the detection of parabens in human breast tumors. The authors are careful to point out that the results of this study do not show that any of the parabens caused breast cancer in these women. This study is not evidence of cause and effect. The study did show that five of the six parabens widely used in consumer products can be detected intact (not changed or metabolized) in human tissues. This is an important initial finding, but more research is needed to see if exposure to parabens does or does not affect breast cancer risk.
For instance, this study did not show if levels of the parabens in breast tumors were any different from nearby normal breast tissue in these women. Also, this study did not include any women without breast cancer. To evaluate breast cancer risk, a study would need to compare levels of parabens in women with breast cancer (cases) to women of similar age without breast cancer (controls). This study was very small, with only 20 tumor samples. A larger, case-controlled study would be needed to more fully evaluate whether parabens do or do not affect breast cancer risk. This study did have some other problems, such as the contamination of the blank samples mentioned above. Another problem reported was in the analytical method. An important way to measure the ability to accurately detect the chemical includes adding (spiking) a known amount of paraben to a sample to see how much of the known amount can be recovered from the sample. For instance, if you add 100 units, you would like to have a high recovery of over 90%. In this study, the recoveries of added paraben averaged just under 50%. Hence, the method used to extract the parabens from the sample needs to be improved.
This study has received attention in the popular press because the authors are interested in exploring the hypothesis of whether estrogenic parabens used in underarm products (like deodorants and antiperspirants) increase breast cancer risk. This study did not test this hypothesis. The results did show that intact parabens can be detected in human tissue. It did not however, make any attempt to find out the source of the parabens. The women who donated the tumor samples were not interviewed. In fact, no reports of their age or tumor status were included in this study. No information on other factors that may have influenced their breast cancer risk, or information on past use or patterns of use of products with parabens was obtained. It is not known if the major exposure was due to the parabens from food or via topical application of a certain type or a variety of personal care products.
Better studies are needed of whether or not long term use of paraben-containing consumer products affect human tissue levels. Given the ubiquitous nature of paraben use in consumer products and recent evidence of the estrogenicity of parabens, I would agree with other scientists who have called for a reassessment of the safety of parabens. Most of the risk assessments conducted on the safety of parabens were done before it was known that parabens can act as an environmental estrogen and before it was known that levels are detectable in human tissue. A recent study on the safety of propylparaben does acknowledge the estrogenicity of this chemical, but does not fully explore possible human health risks (3). More recent data is needed to update the 1984 study by Elder, which is one of the few reports estimating exposure to parabens from food, drug and cosmetic products. While use of parabens is widespread, product-to-product use is variable. In a survey of products in my own bathroom and kitchen, I found a type of paraben listed as an ingredient in liquid hand soap, two hand lotions, one out of three shampoos (the "natural" brand was the one with the paraben), one out of two hair conditioners, and three out of five sunscreens (including two made for use by children), but in none of the three antiperspirants that my family uses.
At this point in time we do not have information on whether or not paraben-containing products are used at a level that affects human health. But, research indicating that several parabens can act as weak environmental estrogens and the preliminary results of this study do support the need for more vigorous research in this area. Unlike other environmental contaminants, use of personal care products represents a choice made by the consumer and a choice by the manufacturer who determine the ingredients of the product.
1) Elder, RL. Final report on the safety assessment of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, Journal of the American College of Toxicology, vol. 3, pp. 147-209, 1984.
2) Darbre, PD, A Aljarrah, WR Miller, NG Coldham, MJ Sauer and GS Pope, Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumors, Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 24, pp. 5-13, 2004.
3) Soni, MG, GA Burdock, SL Taylor, NA Greenberg, Safety assessment of propyl paraben: a review of the published literature (Review), Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 39, pp. 513-532, 2001.
Other Resources on the Danger of Parabens
Beckley-Kartey SA, Hotchkiss SA, and Capel M, "Comparative in vitro skin absorption and metabolism of coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) in human, rat and mouse," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Jul 1997: 145(1): 34-42.
Byford, J. R., Shaw, L. E., Drew, M. G., Pope, G. S., Sauer, M. J., and Darbre, P. D. "Oestrognic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2002: 80, 49-60.
Darbre, P. D., Aljarrah, A., Miller, W. R., Coldham, N. G., Sauer, M. J., and Pope, G. S., "Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumors," Journal of Applied Toxicology, Jan 2004: (24): 5-13.
Darbre PD, Byford JR, Shaw LE, Horton RA, Pope GS, and Sauer MJ, "Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo," Journal of Applied Toxicology, Jul-Aug 2002; 22(4): 219-26.
Darbre PD, Byford JR, Shaw LE, Hall S, Coldham NG, Pope GS, and Sauer MJ, "Oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben," Journal of Applied Toxicology, Jan-Feb 2003; 23(1): 43-51.
Ema M, Kurosaka R, Amano H, Ogawa Y. "Comparative developmental toxicity of n-butyl benzyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate in rats." Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1995; 28:223-228.
Ema M, Miyawaki E, Kawashima K. "Further evaluation of developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate following administration during late pregnancy in rats." Toxicol Lett, 1998; 87-93.
Harvey, PW, Darbre PD, Endocrine disruptors and human health: Could oestrogenic chemicals in body care cosmetics adversely affect breast cancer incidence in women? A review of evidence and call for further research. Journal of Applied Toxicology, Jan 2004: (24): 167-176.
Kang, "Decreased sperm number and motile activity on the F1 offspring maternally exposed to butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (butyl parabens)," Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, March 2002; 64(3): 227-35.
National Research Council, "Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment," NRC Report, Washington DC, National Academy Press (1999).
Oishi, S. "Effects of butyl paraben on the male reproductive system in mice." Archives of Toxicology 2002: 76, 423-429.
Oishi, S. "Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system." Food and Chemical Toxicology 2002: 40, 1807-1813.
Okubo T, Yokoyama Y, Kano K, and Kano I, "ER-dependent estrogenic activity of parabens assessed by proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and expression of ER alpha and PR," Food Chemistry Toxicology, Dec 2001; 39(12): 1225-32.
Pedersen KL et al., "The preservatives ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben are Oestrogenic in an in Vivo Fish Assay," Pharmacology Toxicology, March 2000.
Routledge EJ et al., "Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1998; 153: 12-19.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program, 10th Report on Carcinogens, 2002; pp. 116-19.
Yourick JJ and Bronaugh RL, "Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of courmarin in human and rat skin," Journal of Applied Toxicology, May-Jun 1997; 17(3): 153-8.
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Scientists warn of Harmful Ingredients In our Shampoos and Cosmetics.
By David Lowell Kern
New health concerns are being raised over some common ingredients in hair shampoos, skin creams, toothpastes, and other personal care products. According to researchers in the United States, Germany, Switzerland, and Japan, these ingredients may be linked to premature baldness, cataract formation, environmental cancers, contact dermatitis, and possible eye damage in young children.
SLS and Eye Damage in Young Children
The greatest concern of many scientists is sodium lauryl sulfate, a detergent found in approximately 90% of commercial shampoos. Also known as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), and sodium laurel sulfate (SLS), this chemical has been shown to damage protein formation in eye tissue in young animals, raising serious concerns about the possibility of ocular tissue malformation and blindness in infants and young children. In animal studies, SLS penetration and uptake is much greater in neonatal and young animal eye tissue, compared to adult animals, and shows "penetration into the eye, as well as systemic tissues (brain, heart, liver, etc.)." SLS also showed long-term retention in tissues, up to five days after a single drop (1).Researcher Keith Green, Ph.D., ID. Sc., of the Medical College of Georgia, also reports that SLS extends the healing time of corneal tissue by a factor of five, from the normal 2 days to 10 days or more. He also expresses concerns about cataract formation from SLS. Writing for Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc., Dr. Green states in part: "There is an immediate concern relating to the penetration of these chemicals into the eye and other tissues. This is especially important in infants... exposure to SLS results in accumulation in eye tissues, a process that could retard healing as well as potentially have long term effects." Dr. Green concludes that exposure to sodium lauryl sulfate causes improper eye development in children, and that since SLS is absorbed systemically through the skin, it does not have to enter the eye directly.
Our own research has revealed that SLS is present as a main ingredient in most commercial shampoos. Furthermore, SLS is a main ingredient in most baby shampoos on the store shelves.
SLS Toxicity and Cancer
Another serious health concern with SLS is its tendency to react with other ingredients to form NDELA, a nitrosamine and potent carcinogen. According to a 1978 FDA report, shampooing the hair with a product contaminated with this nitrosamine can lead to its absorption into the body at levels much higher than eating nitrate-contaminated foods. (Researchers actually estimate the nitrate absorption from one shampoo is equal to eating a pound of bacon.) The FDA has recently warned shampoo manufacturers of unacceptable levels of dioxin formation in products containing SLES(dioxins are also dangerous carciniogenic compounds). Whether or not a particular bottle of shampoo is contaminated with these powerful carcinogenic compounds can only be determined through laboratory testing.
Damage to Your Skin
Researchers have known for years that SLS is a skin irritant. In fact, SLS is used as a laboratory standard for irritating skin and inducing contact dermatitis (2,3,4). SLS is useful in laboratory testing "because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier" (5). SLS damages skin barrier function,(6) enhances allergic response to other toxins and allergens,(7) damages and alters skin cells,(8) causes substantial roughness in the skin and results in severe modification of skin (9) recombinant structure(10).
SLS is listed as toxic to skin in many studies(11,12,13). In patients with seborrhea and eczema, SLS increases irritant reactions and susceptibility(14) SLS is indicated in the migration of Langerhans cells to regional lymph sites in contact dermatitis, explaining the inflammation of the lymph nodes in some cases. (A systemic response is clearly indicated.) Researchers have also reported that fair skin is more susceptible to SLS irritation, as is skin with existing eczema- even where the eczema is not local to the SLS contact (15).
With the volumes of scientific information regarding the toxic, carcinogenic, and other harmful effects of sodium lauryl sulfate presented (we have listed only a fraction here), it should be clear that this chemical does not belong on the skin. Unfortunately, SLS is as common as it is dangerous. A review of commercial toothpastes revealed only one major brand that does not contain this ingredient (Sensodyne). All other toothpastes we reviewed have SLS as a major ingredient.
The health risk this represents can be easily understood when several factors are taken into account: the rapid uptake and systemic penetration of SLS, the long-term tissue retention in the heart, liver, and brain, and the fact that the gums are one of the quickest ways to introduce substances into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive tract. The only thing that is difficult to understand is why this chemical is still used as an ingredient in any product designed for skin contact.
SLS and Premature Hair Loss
SLS is implicated in premature hair loss in men and women, and may be one reason for widespread incidence of thinning hair. Because SLS is such a caustic cleanser, it actually corrodes the hair follicle and impairs its ability to grow hair. SLES (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) causes dramatic decline in the hair growth cycle, and prolongs the hair loss phase (normally 3 months) by a factor of eight. Simply removing this ingredient, and its corrosive and irritating effects, begins to restore the natural, healthy function of the hair follicle.
SLS is also implicated in scalp irritation, eczema, dandruff, and other scalp conditions. Many shampoos designed to alleviate dandruff, itching, and other scalp disorders may actually be causing the problems they are supposed to eliminate, because of the toxicity of SLS-containing formulas to the skin and scalp. Avoiding contact with this cytotoxic (cell killing) chemical is all many people need to completely alleviate scalp disorders.
"Natural" Brands Offer No Protection
Ingredient reviews of shampoos sold in health food stores under "natural" brands and labels have turned up many formulas containing SLS. The cost, reputation, or market position of the shampoo apparently has little to do with its contents. Some of the most reputable and exclusive brands contain SLS. Don't be fooled by high prices or marketing hype-you must check the ingredients on each product if you want to avoid the harmful effects of SLS.
Propylene Glycol-More Health Concerns
Another common ingredient in many beauty creams, cleansers, makeup, and other cosmetics is propylene glycol. This chemical is used in industry as anti-freeze, airplane de-icer, and brake fluid. It is also used in thousands of cosmetic preparations as a delivery vehicle and solvent.
When you purchase a drum of propylene glycol from a supplier, that supplier is required to furnish an MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). The MSDS for propylene glycol says "Avoid skin contact." We are amazed to find this same product in most skin creams on the market.
Recent findings indicate that propylene glycol has severe adverse health effects, and has been found to cause contact dermatitis, ototoxicity, kidney damage, and liver abnormalities in various clinical human and animal studies. The effects of propylene glycol are clearly more than skin deep. Propylene glycol has shown measurable toxicity to human cells in culture(16). It has been shown to inhibit skin cell growth in human tests,(17) and cell respiration in animal tests. When tested in guinea pigs and chinchillas, eardrops containing propylene glycol caused irreversible deafness, tissue and bone degradation, and morphological changes to the middle ear(18,19). Propylene glycol caused mytotoxic (skeletal muscular damage) effects in rats(20,21) and rabbits(22). PG is reported to directly alter cell membranes, to cause contact allergies and dermatitis(24), to cause skin thickening(25) and skin dehydration and chronic surface damage(26).
Propylene glyco poisoning has been reported to induce seizures in epileptics(27,28) and cardiorespiratory arrest(28,29). One study "advise(s) caution when propylene glycol is employed as a vehicle in clinical use"(30). In another study on PG ingestion in cats, researchers reported encephalopathy, depression. and ataxia. The similarities of PG absorption in cats and humans was noted, and the report stated: "These findings are significant not only for animals ingesting diets which contain propylene glycol, but for humans who receive propylene glycol-containing medications"(31)
PG and Premature Skin Aging
The science of skin biology has advanced substantially since propylene glycol was first introduced to cosmetics over 30 years ago, and yet PG is still the major ingredient in most skin creams, regardless of cost, market share, or "natural" claims. New findings suggest that using PG and other occlusive (filming) ingredients on the skin actually ages the skin prematurely. Estimates are that skin ages at least 13 years for every 10 years these types of products are used.
Fortunately, products are now being developed based on scientific breakthroughs to reverse environmental and aging damage to the skin, and to support the biology of the skin as a living organ. This approach is returning rapid results in skin healing, wrinkle diminishment, and other problems of aging skin (sagging skin, eye bags, etc.).
You won't find these products in department stores any time soon, however. Many formulas with these new and often exotic ingredients are exclusive to a single manufacturer, and the expense of these breakthroughs is prohibitive for the major manufacturer. Fortunately, there are independent manufacturers beginning to bring these advances to market.
What You Should Do:
Check your shampoos, toothpaste, liquid soaps, body gels, and other skin products for sodium lauryl sulfate. We recommend that you avoid any further skin contact with products containing this ingredient.
If you have children, make sure they are not using shampoos and toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate. Children under 6 are especially vulnerable to improper eye development. Also check sun block products. (We found one that contains SLS and aluminum, a potentially dangerous combination for brain cell deterioration).
Replace products containing SLS with safer alternatives (formulas without SLS).
Check all your cosmetic products for propylene glycol and get them off your skin. If you have infants, check your baby wipes and baby lotions and find alternative products that are safe for children (some baby wipes are available with aloe instead of propylene glycol).
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Commercial Baby Lotions and Shampoos May Expose Children to Dangerous Chemicals
February 10, 2008
We assume that products made for babies, like shampoos, lotions and powders, are supposed to be very gentle products. However, there have been numerous reports discussing a new study by the University of Washington in Seattle, published in the Journal "Pediatrics," which states these "gentle" products may expose very young children to a potentially dangerous chemical.
The study, explains that harmful chemicals known as phthalates (pronounced thowl-ates) are found in these products, as well as many personal care products, medical supplies and toys (they are used to make vinyl toys soft and flexible).
Animal studies reveal that these chemicals are known to produce developmental toxicity. There have also been human studies to back up these results. In one study, the urine in infants was measured, with all infants showing a measurable amount of phthalates in their urine. The more creams, lotions, and shampoos used, the higher their levels of phthalates there are. Young infants, less than 8 months old, are more susceptible to the dangers of these chemicals.
"Right now, we still don't know the true long-term effects," said study author Dr. Sheela Sathyanarayana, an acting assistant professor in the department of pediatrics at the University of Washington, Seattle. But, she added, it's probably a good idea to "decrease the amounts of products used, especially in newborns."
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), phthalates are a group of widely used chemicals that make plastic softer and help stabilize fragrance in personal care products. Phthalates are typically used in baby products to help the fragrances stay on the infant's skin so we get that "baby scent" we like so much. Exposure to these phthalates occurs when you use a product containing them.
Although phthalates are under attack by some environmental advocacy groups, experts are uncertain what dangers, if any, they pose. The federal government does not limit their use, since the FDA says it's not clear what effect they have on human health and more research needs to be done. However, phthalates are banned from use in some personal care products in Europe, and California has restricted their use.
Concerned parents can look for products labeled "phthalate-free," or check labels for common phthalates, including DEP (diethyl phthalate) and DEHP (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), BBP (butyl benzyl phthalate), or DINP diisononyl phthalate.
Unfortunately, the names of these chemicals do not always appear on product labels. The most common source of phthalates in baby products is synthetic fragrances. Phthalates are the chemical that help the scent of a product stay on your skin. Since the chemical makeup of a fragrance is often a trade secret, retail products are not required to list individual ingredients of fragrances, which are a common phthalate source. It is possible, that since phthalates are often contained in fragrances, a product that is fragrance-free may also be phthalate-free.
Dr. Sheela Sathyanarayana states that the greater the exposure, the greater potential for harm, which is why they recommend limiting the use of products containing phthalates if possible. "Babies don't usually need special baby lotions and powders."
Since there is no legislation requiring companies to list all of the contents of their products on the packages, there is no way of knowing which ones pose a risk. Until there is more label information available parents are advised to use baby powder, shampoos and lotions sparingly. The safest solution for parents is simply to use mild soap and water.
If you are worried about phthalates in plastic, look for the recycling codes that are on plastic products - the number 3 on a plastic container or toy means it's vinyl or PVC and likely contains phthalates. So that's something to avoid.
The above is a very brief summary of information we obtained doing an internet search titled, "Baby shampoo and lotion dangers," and a search on "Dangers of Phthalates."
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During the last few years my husband decided to learn how to start cooking and we've discovered he has a tremendous gift....This guy can COOK!!!!! We decided to compile every fantastic recipe that he has cooked for our guests and our own family that literally have people begging for us to invite them over again. The highlight of my day is looking forward to the fantastic meals he prepares. He has a gift for making my mouth water before I even sit down at the dinner table. The smells are fantastic! These are truly recipes to die for and we're now offering them to you also. Bon appetit!
WORSHIP MUSIC IN THREE DIMENSIONS - How to Sing Down the Presence and Power of God
This book was written to help churches bring their congregation into the very lap of God. This can be accomplished by adapting a certain musical progression during the time of congregational singing. The author, Rev. Tom Pedigo, calls this model "The Temple Pattern" which involves a simple threefold process of musically moving from the Outer Court (celebration and jubilation) to the Inner Court (reflection and expectation) and into the Holy of Holies (adoration and spiritual communion). A must-read for every pastor, worship leader and serious worshipper. After visiting hundreds of churches, Rev. Pedigo believes this is a blueprint for corporate church revival.
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"How to Stop Smoking" will give you winning strategies for quitting the tobacco habit and overcoming your nicotine addiction by providing powerful, step-by-step, WORKABLE tools for you to use in your battle to quit smoking. The author, Dr. Roger Aveyard, has been working in the behavioral health field for over 25 years and has experienced the struggle of smoking, the agony associated with the habit, and an unrelenting desire to learn how to quit. He's been there, done that, and has come out a winner!
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